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Iztapalapa

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El 2 de mayo de , Ana fue detenida durante el almuerzo y llevada a la Torre de Londres. Cuatro de los hombres fueron procesados en Westminster el 12 de mayo de Jorge Bolena y los otros acusados fueron ejecutados el 17 de mayo.

Y si alguna persona se entremete en mi causa, requiero que ellos juzguen lo mejor. Sus damas le quitaron el tocado y ataron una venda sobre sus ojos. Hubo distintos tratamientos de su vida a cargo de populares historiadores como Marie Louise Bruce , Hester W. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.

Antepasados de Ana Bolena. The Reincarnation of Anne Boleyn. Archivado desde el original el 21 de marzo de Consultado el 14 de marzo de Archivado desde el original el 4 de junio de Elton, England under the Tudors: Third Edition Routledge, , p. Consultado el 9 de febrero de Control de autoridades con 14 elementos Wikipedia: Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. En otros proyectos Wikimedia Commons. Reina consorte de Inglaterra.

The Museo de Hidrobiologia Hydrobiology Museum mostly contains preserved example of the various species found in the different types of water found in Mexico. These include rivers, lakes, ponds, estuaries, beach areas as well as reefs offshore.

Yesterday, Today and Always. It contains five dormitories, intake center, workshops, sports facilities and classrooms. It has a maximum population of housed in four buildings with basketball court, dining hall, workshops, classrooms and computer room. A new building is under construction to bring the capacity up to inmates. For most of the borough's history, most transportation of people and freight was done on the waters of the lake and through canals. However, these began to dry up starting in the 19th century.

They remained important up until the early 20th century, with even steamships passing through at one time. In the s, many of the barrios of Iztapalapa were still marked by canals and still grew vegetables, fruits and flowers. Eventually, major traffic was confined mostly to the Canal Nacional. As the canals dried up, newer modes of transportation were introduced. In , mule -drawn trolleys were introduced into the municipality to link it Mexico City via Jamaica.

These trolleys would be used to bring Mexican president Francisco I. Madero to celebrate his inauguration in Several train lines linked the area to other parts of Mexico by The first bus services between the center of Mexico City and the large market was begun in Today, most transportation in the borough is on various roadways via public or private vehicle. Each day about 80, vehicles pass through, making it the second busiest highway section in Mexico City.

Many of these are local and intercity buses which can block two out of the three lanes. Construction work has been done to widen the highway, but political disputes have kept new lanes from opening as of early Line 8 and Line A of the Metro also pass through the borough. With a population of 1,, as of the census, [36] Iztapalapa is the most populous and fastest growing borough in Mexico City.

Until the midth century, the area was rural, but migration into the borough began in the s as this is the only area with significant land that could be developed. From to , Iztapalapa gained ,, more than 1. Most of the migration came from families leaving the center of the city, but more importantly many migrants from other parts of Mexico into the city settled in the relatively cheap Iztapalapa. Today, the population of the borough accounts for over During the colonial period into the 19th century, Iztapalapa was mostly indigenous, with small population of European descent and mestizos.

Migration into the area eventually would change the ethnic composition to primarily mestizo and the Nahuatl language would essentially disappear. This is about equal to the city average. Oaxacan languages account for Uto-Aztecan languages account for Another significant percentage are those of the Oto-Pamean languages which include Otomi , Mazahua and Matlatzinca.

The only language which has been spoken in Mexico not represented in Iztapalapa is Kickapoo. The overwhelming majority of the population is Catholic , although this has declined by 1. The first public primary school classes in Iztapalapa were established in under the government of Venustiano Carranza at Escuela Enrique Laubscher and in the San Lucas Church.

The highest rates of illiteracy are in the 65 and older age group. The two most important economic activities in the borough are manufacturing and commerce. Commerce and services together employ Twenty-four percent of this commerce is wholesale, much of which is tied to the Central de Abasto and the La Nueva Viga markets. However, wholesale businesses have declined 2. This has a positive effect on employment, but this activity adds less to the GDP. The largest sector of retail sales is in street markets called tianguis , followed by public markets, street peddlers and lastly through the Central de Abasto.

A total of Industry includes food processing, bottling, tobacco products, metals, machinery, surgical equipment, paper and printing and textiles. The Passion Play of Iztapalapa has its origin in an outbreak of cholera in , which left many dead and many children orphaned. When it subsided, it was considered a miracle and various cults to this Christ figure appeared. The first is a Mass in honor of this images, now known as the Fiesta de Solteras de Septiembre.

The second is the annual Passion Play. According to one local legend, Emiliano Zapata lent his horses for the version of the play. Since that time, this Passion Play has become a major event with the participation of actors and attended by 2 million people over the course of the week and 2, police to provide security.

Most Iztapalapa residents seek roles but not all are selected. These are reserved for single young people, who do not have children, addictions, tattoos and can demonstrate their Catholic faith. For a year, the chosen Jesus exercises daily as well as prays to prepare physically and spiritually.

The man playing Jesus must carry the cross 2. The day after Easter Sunday the selection committee meets to choose the next Jesus and Mary. The last ancient ceremony was held in Various neighborhoods hold celebrations for Carnival , which mostly consists of costumed groups, dance, live music and parades. These communities come together to hold a finale at the end of Carnival. The borough is named after a city which was founded here in the pre-Hispanic period. Chinampa agriculture would be important in many areas of the Valley of Mexico, including the area of Iztapalapa.

Chinampas here were made from reeds, tree branches and lake mud, [7] growing corn, beans and wide variety of vegetables. They were also an ecosystem home to wide variety of land and aquatic flora and fauna, including storks, flowers, trees, reeds, quetzals, frogs, and fish. The chinampas remained in private hands until , when they were expropriated to construct the Central de Abasto , which eliminated them.

Culhuacan was moved to a site called Tollantzingo in the s, and shortly after that migrants from Tula came into the area to settle as well, bringing with them the worship of Quetzalcoatl. These would be the four main settlements of the area, with close relations that would last into the colonial era, when they were part of the Mexicaltzingo corregimiento. The village of Iztapalapa has its origins in the fall of Teotihuacan in the 8th century.

Ancient Iztapalapa has alliances and disputes mostly with the other dominions with economies based on chinampas, such as Xochimilco, Chalco and Mixquic. The main rulers of this city included Nauhyotl, Cuauhtexpetlatzin, Huetzin, Nonoalcatle and Cuauhtonal who ruled between and In the middle of the 13th century, the Toltecs were displaced by the Chichimecas , who ruled it from to under various rulers. However, the area was divided into a number of dominions around the lake system of the valley, which vied among themselves for dominance.

They lived together mostly peacefully. However, records indicate that the Mexicas were forced into servitude as punishment for raids by young warriors to carry off women from neighboring settlements. The Aztec Triple Alliance would be formed in the early 15th century, as part of the process of uniting the Nahuatl-speaking peoples of the valley.

This and various marital ties from the past would make these new rulers descendents from the old. As one of the first members of the Alliance, Iztapalapa was not conquered. Under this arrangement, Iztapalapa did not pay tribute to Tenochtitlan, they did have to supply labor for major projects as well as military service. This was the site of the New Fire ceremony , held once every 52 years, beginning anew cycle of years.

The ceremony also required the destruction of all household goods to be replaced by new. At that time, the area has about 10, inhabitants dedicated to chinampa agriculture and the raising of fish and birds.

The construction of this causeway began in under Itzcoatl, using labor from peoples from the south of the valley such as the Xochimilcas. It was wide enough for horses to cross in pairs. The causeway was divided by a fort called Xoloc, made of stone with towers, merlons and gates to control entrance and exit.

They met in a garden which most Aztec lords had as a refuge and to demonstrate culture. In the center of the garden was a large palace made of sandstone and fine woods such as cedar. In , the Spanish took Moctezuma, Cacamatzin ruler of Texcoco , Cuitlahuac and other nobles as prisoners. Alvarado had hundreds of Aztec nobles killed. Cuitlahuac succeeded Moctezuma as Aztec emperor and forced the Spanish to flee during the Noche Triste.

However, Cuitlahuac was ruler only somewhere between 40 and 80 days according to various records. He spent that time repairing the city of Tenochtitlan as the Spanish regrouped in Tlaxcala.

The city of Iztapalapa had about 10, people with about two-thirds of its structures built over water. Eight thousand Aztecs defended the city on land and on water. But after the battle, when the Spanish let down their guard, Iztapalapa opened water channels to flood the city and drown the invaders.

Most of the Spanish survived, but many of their Indian allies did not and were drowned. The Spanish lost all of their gunpowder. After the Conquest, the pre-Hispanic temples of the area were destroyed, the Iztapalapa and surrounding cities were subjugated by Gonzalo de Sandoval. By the first census of New Spain in , Culhuacan was down to inhabitants, and in Mexicaltzingo. Following the destruction of the temples, Augustinians and Franciscans moved in to build churches and monasteries.

It was dedicated to John the Baptist. They founded a school to teach indigenous languages which operated for years. These were built with much of the material from the destroyed temples. However, by the end of the 18th century, all of these would be in the hands of normal clergy. Iztapalapa and several other nearby communities were initially under the direct control of Mexico City, but shortly after only Iztapalapa would remain so.

Mexicaltzingo belonged to the Spanish Crown from early on. Iztapalapa became a tributary of Mexico City, required to provide food, manual labor and more. At the end of the 16th century, it too became property of the Spanish Crown. Other areas of the modern borough were made into encomiendas. During the colonial period, Iztapalapa was very rural, notable only as one of the primary providers of produce and flowers to Mexico City and its lake and canal transportation.

In the middle of the 18th century, there were still only 80 families in Iztapalapa, with 31 of them being Spanish. By the end of the same century, that would become indigenous families distributed into nine barrios and three villages.

At the end of the colonial period Iztapalapa would also include three haciendas and two ranches. There were two main canals through here that connected the area with Chalco and Xochimilco. One of these was the Canal de la Viga, which was an important means of transporting corn, beans, vegetables and more into the capital [7] These canals had control and customs checkpoints which divided Mexico City from rural areas.

The most important of these was the La Viga control point due to the merchandise that passed through. The village of Iztapalapa became part of this district at the same time, but the borough had not yet been established. It would remain an autonomous settlement. In , it was one of the municipalities outside of Mexico City proper. A cholera epidemic in prompted the first passion play to be performed in this area, which has been performed since.

In the middle of the 19th century, the town of Iztapalapa had 3, inhabitants. Much of what is now the borough was lake or crisscrossed by various canals, which carried barge, canoe and even steamship traffic until the late 19th century. The main ones were the Mexicaltzingo canal and those near the Churubusco River. The Mexicalcingo canal was widened for steamships.

The canals would remain a part of the borough until the midth century. Efforts to preserve the system began in , when ejido owners turned over land to construct new ones.


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