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Her work focuses on processing the multiplicity of the lived experience.

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Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament. Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data.

Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.

The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students.

A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship. A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches.

Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".

The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.

The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.

The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society. Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament.

Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups. In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.

The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility". At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.

Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true. A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia.

The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup.

This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups. Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day.

Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other competitions of that name, see World Cup disambiguation. For the video game, see FIFA Not a FIFA member. Bronnitsy , Moscow Oblast Australia: Kazan , Republic of Tatarstan Belgium: Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast [79] Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg [80] France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: The Singelgracht should not be confused with the oldest and most inner canal Singel.

The canals served for defence, water management and transport. The defences took the form of a moat and earthen dikes , with gates at transit points, but otherwise no masonry superstructures. Construction started in and proceeded from west to east, across the breadth of the layout, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the historian Geert Mak calls it — and not from the centre outwards, as a popular myth has it.

The canal construction in the southern sector was completed by Subsequently, the construction of residential buildings proceeded slowly.

The eastern part of the concentric canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel river and the IJ bay, has never been implemented. In the following centuries, the land was used for parks, senior citizens' homes, theatres, other public facilities, and waterways without much planning.

After the development of Amsterdam's canals in the 17th century, the city did not grow beyond its borders for two centuries. During the 19th century, Samuel Sarphati devised a plan based on the grandeur of Paris and London at that time. The plan envisaged the construction of new houses, public buildings and streets just outside the Grachtengordel. The main aim of the plan, however, was to improve public health.

Although the plan did not expand the city, it did produce some of the largest public buildings to date, like the Paleis voor Volksvlijt. Following Sarphati, civil engineers Jacobus van Niftrik and Jan Kalff designed an entire ring of 19th-century neighbourhoods surrounding the city's centre, with the city preserving the ownership of all land outside the 17th-century limit, thus firmly controlling development.

In response to overcrowding, two plans were designed at the beginning of the 20th century which were very different from anything Amsterdam had ever seen before: Plan Zuid , designed by the architect Berlage , and West. These plans involved the development of new neighbourhoods consisting of housing blocks for all social classes. After the Second World War, large new neighbourhoods were built in the western, southeastern, and northern parts of the city.

These new neighbourhoods were built to relieve the city's shortage of living space and give people affordable houses with modern conveniences. The neighbourhoods consisted mainly of large housing blocks situated among green spaces, connected to wide roads, making the neighbourhoods easily accessible by motor car. The western suburbs which were built in that period are collectively called the Westelijke Tuinsteden.

The area to the southeast of the city built during the same period is known as the Bijlmer. Amsterdam has a rich architectural history. The oldest building in Amsterdam is the Oude Kerk English: Old Church , at the heart of the Wallen, consecrated in It was constructed around and is one of only two existing wooden buildings. It is also one of the few examples of Gothic architecture in Amsterdam. The oldest stone building of the Netherlands, The Moriaan is build in 's-Hertogenbosch.

In the 16th century, wooden buildings were razed and replaced with brick ones. During this period, many buildings were constructed in the architectural style of the Renaissance. Amsterdam quickly developed its own Renaissance architecture.

These buildings were built according to the principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser. In the 17th century baroque architecture became very popular, as it was elsewhere in Europe.

This roughly coincided with Amsterdam's Golden Age. Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchants' houses throughout the city. Throughout the 18th century, Amsterdam was heavily influenced by French culture. This is reflected in the architecture of that period. Around , architects broke with the baroque style and started building in different neo-styles. At the end of the 19th century, the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau style became popular and many new buildings were constructed in this architectural style.

Since Amsterdam expanded rapidly during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city centre were also built in this style. The last style that was popular in Amsterdam before the modern era was Art Deco. Amsterdam had its own version of the style, which was called the Amsterdamse School. Whole districts were built this style, such as the Rivierenbuurt. The old city centre is the focal point of all the architectural styles before the end of the 19th century.

Jugendstil and Georgian are mostly found outside the city's centre in the neighbourhoods built in the early 20th century, although there are also some striking examples of these styles in the city centre. Most historic buildings in the city centre and nearby are houses, such as the famous merchants' houses lining the canals. Amsterdam has many parks, open spaces and squares throughout the city. The Vondelpark , the largest park in the city, is located in the Oud-Zuid neighbourhood and is named after the 17th-century Amsterdam author Joost van den Vondel.

Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors. In the park is an open-air theatre, a playground and several horeca facilities. In the Zuid borough, is the Beatrixpark , named after Queen Beatrix. Other parks include the Sarphatipark in the De Pijp neighbourhood, the Oosterpark in the Oost borough and the Westerpark in the Westerpark neighbourhood.

The city has three beaches: The city has many open squares plein in Dutch. The namesake of the city as the site of the original dam, Dam Square , is the main city square and has the Royal Palace and National Monument. Also, near to Amsterdam is the Nekkeveld estate conservation project.

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. KPMG International's global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen, where many non-Dutch companies have settled as well, because surrounding communities allow full land ownership, contrary to Amsterdam's land-lease system.

Though many small offices are still located on the old canals, companies are increasingly relocating outside the city centre. South Axis has become the new financial and legal hub.

There are three other smaller financial districts in Amsterdam. The first is the area surrounding Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station , where several newspapers like De Telegraaf have their offices. Also, Deloitte , the Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf municipal public transport company and the Dutch tax offices Belastingdienst are located there.

The third is the area surrounding Amsterdam Amstel railway station. The tallest building in Amsterdam, the Rembrandt Tower , is situated there, as is the headquarters of Philips.

The Port of Amsterdam is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th largest port in the world and the second largest port in the Netherlands by metric tons of cargo.

Amsterdam has the biggest cruise port in the Netherlands with more than cruise ships every year. In the new lock in IJmuiden will open; the port will then be able to grow to million tonnes in capacity. It is near Dam Square in the city centre. Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, receiving more than 4.

This can be attributed to an increasing number of European visitors. Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's centre. For example, the year was designated "Rembrandt ", to celebrate the th birthday of Rembrandt van Rijn.

Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years. The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites around the city range from 12, to 65, De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most well known red-light district. This neighbourhood has become a famous attraction for tourists.

It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. Shops in Amsterdam range from large high end department stores such as De Bijenkorf founded in to small specialty shops.

Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets P. Hooftstraat and Cornelis Schuytstraat , which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark. One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat in the heart of the city. Other shopping areas include the Negen Straatjes and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat. Negen Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel , the concentric canal system of Amsterdam.

The Negen Straatjes differ from other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of privately owned shops. The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were voted best shopping street in the Netherlands in These streets have as the Negen Straatjes a large diversity of privately owned shops. But as the Negen Straatjes are dominated by fashion stores the Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuyp Market , Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt.

Some of these markets are held on a daily basis, like the Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the Westerstraatmarkt, are held on a weekly basis. Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion Center. Buildings which formerly housed brothels in the red light district have been converted to ateliers for young fashion designers, AKA eagle fuel.

During the later part of the 16th-century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer Chamber of rhetoric organised contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama. In , Amsterdam opened its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as In the 18th century, French theatre became popular. While Amsterdam was under the influence of German music in the 19th century there were few national opera productions; the Hollandse Opera of Amsterdam was built in for the specific purpose of promoting Dutch opera.

At the end of this century, the Rijksmuseum and Stedelijk Museum were built. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and television. Many people who work in the television industry live in Amsterdam. The most important museums of Amsterdam are located on the Museumplein Museum Square , located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum. It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World's fair.

The northeastern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum. In front of the Rijksmuseum on the square itself is a long, rectangular pond.

This is transformed into an ice rink in winter. The southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam.

The Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square. To the southeast of the square are situated a number of large houses, one of which contains the American consulate. A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket.

The Museumplein is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part of the square which is covered with gravel. The current appearance of the square was realised in , when the square was remodelled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam for festivals and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer.

Plans were made in to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam are not happy with its current appearance. The Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art.

Its collection consists of nearly one million objects. Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch is one of top pieces of art of the museum. Aside from paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art. This ranges from Delftware to giant doll-houses from the 17th century.

The architect of the gothic revival building was P. The museum underwent a year, million euro renovation starting in The full collection was reopened to the public on 13 April and the Rijksmuseum has established itself as the most visited museum in Amsterdam with 2. Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam for a short while and there is a museum dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam.

The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is displayed. A new building was added to the museum in This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.

Its purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum. Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum.

This is Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art. The museum is as old as the square it borders and was opened in The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan , Karel Appel , and Kazimir Malevich. After renovations lasting several years the museum opened in September with a new composite extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to one. Amsterdam contains many other museums throughout the city.

The modern-styled Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions. Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs which treat the city nostalgically and lovingly. The song "Aan de Amsterdamse grachten" "On the canals of Amsterdam" was performed and recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.

In the s Johnny Jordaan rose to fame with "Geef mij maar Amsterdam" "I prefer Amsterdam" , which praises the city above all others explicitly Paris ; Jordaan sang especially about his own neighbourhood, the Jordaan "Bij ons in de Jordaan". Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts for big audiences. Many famous international artists have performed there.

Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the Melkweg are located near the Leidseplein. Jazz has a strong following in Amsterdam, with the Bimhuis being the premier venue.

In , Ziggo Dome was opened, also near Amsterdam Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena. AFAS Live is also host to many electronic dance music festivals, alongside many other venues. Each year in October, the city hosts the Amsterdam Dance Event ADE which is one of the leading electronic music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic music in the world, attracting over , visitors each year.

Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the world. Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over ,, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.

Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera , a word originally coined by protesters against it very construction: This huge modern complex, opened in , lies in the former Jewish neighbourhood at Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel.

Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its concerts perform mostly modern classical music. Located adjacent to it, is the Bimhuis , a concert hall for improvised and Jazz music. The Stadsschouwburg at the Leidseplein is the home base of Toneelgroep Amsterdam. The current building dates from Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal Great Hall.

The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms. The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to be operated jointly with next door Melkweg , will open in late or early The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial plays and musicals. A new theatre has also moved into Amsterdam scene in , joining other established venues: Theater Amsterdam is situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade.

It is housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour. The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life.

On the east side of town there is a small theatre in a converted bath house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming. The Netherlands has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst , which combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy. Cabaret dates back to the s and artists like Wim Kan , Wim Sonneveld and Toon Hermans were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands.

In Amsterdam is the Kleinkunstacademie English: The English spoken comedy scene was established with the founding of Boom Chicago in They have their own theatre at Leidseplein. Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. They range from large and modern to small and cozy. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine.

Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam as well. Since Amsterdam is a multicultural city, a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found. Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable. The two main nightlife areas for tourists are the Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein. Bimhuis located near the Central Station, with its rich programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the best jazz clubs in the world.

In , there were festivals and events in Amsterdam. Famous festivals and events in Amsterdam include: On Koninginnedag—that was held each year on 30 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam to celebrate with the city's residents and Koningsdag is held on 27 April. The entire city becomes overcrowded with people buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music concerts.

The yearly Holland Festival attracts international artists and visitors from all over Europe. It offers previews of many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on podia. The stadium Johan Cruyff Arena is the home of Ajax. It is located in the south-east of the city next to the new Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway station. Before moving to their current location in , Ajax played their regular matches in De Meer Stadion.

The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam Marathon. The ice hockey team Amstel Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league.

Speed skating championships have been held on the metre lane of this ice rink. Amsterdam holds two American football franchises: There are three field hockey teams: The basketball team MyGuide Amsterdam competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid. Since the city of Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in The city of Amsterdam is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities Act.

It is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor. Since , the municipality of Amsterdam has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts'. Over time, a total of 15 boroughs were created. In May , under a major reform, the number of Amsterdam boroughs was reduced to eight: Amsterdam-Centrum covering the city centre including the canal belt , Amsterdam-Noord consisting of the neighbourhoods north of the IJ lake , Amsterdam-Oost in the east, Amsterdam-Zuid in the south, Amsterdam-West in the west, Amsterdam Nieuw-West in the far west, Amsterdam Zuidoost in the southeast, and Westpoort covering the Port of Amsterdam area.

As with all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor burgemeester. The mayor is a member of the municipal executive board, but also has individual responsibilies in maintaining public order.

On 27 June Femke Halsema former member of House of Representatives for GroenLinks from to was appointed as the first women to be Mayor of Amsterdam by the King's Commissioner of North Holland for a six-year term after being nominated by the Amsterdam municipal council. On 18 September it was announced by Eberhard van der Laan in an open letter to Amsterdam citizens that Kajsa Ollongren would take up his office as acting Mayor of Amsterdam with immediate effect due to ill health.

Unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into eight boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts', a system that was implemented gradually in the s to improve local governance. Enjoy wine tasting experience and you will have an opportunity to taste some of the region best wines. Drive to Amsterdam , the capital city of Netherlands. Compliments you with the famous caramel Stroopwafel! Volendam The old fishing village and a land reclamation from a harbour is a popular tourist attraction, well-known for its old fishing boats and the traditional clothing still worn by some residents.

During Tulips season will be replaced by Keukenhof Garden. Belgium homemade chocolate shop Proceed to Paris: The most romantic city in Europe! Seine River Cruise include ticket A 45 minutes ride will show you most of the Parisian attractions from a different angle.

Galeries Lafayette Departmental Store Enjoy your shopping. Eurostar An experience on the high-speed train to London by crossing the English Channels. Buckingham Palace Is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.

Elizabeth Tower Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower as well. Enjoy your shopping at Harrods or Oxford Street. There are no reviews yet. Leave a Review Cancel reply Rating. Depart to Zurich , the financial city in Switzerland! Radisson Blu or SML. Schaffhausen Photo stop at Schaffhausen to admire the awe-inspiring roar of the Rhine Falls. Hyatt Place or SML.

Zaanse Schans A town famous for its many windmills and see how wooden clogs and Dutch cheese are made in the traditional way. Renowned Diamond-cutting Factory Gassan Diamonds and appreciate the process of turning the rough diamonds into dazzling, exquisitely polished stones.

Belgium homemade chocolate shop. Novotel Vaugirard or SML.

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